It’s a kind of alcohol. as biomass fuel Caused by bringing plants to ferment to change starch into sugar. then converting from sugar to alcohol By using some enzymes or acids to help digestion. It is a clear, colorless, odorless liquid, flammable and high octane.
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Ethanol is composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, has the chemical formula C2H5OH and has a boiling point of 78.5 degrees Celsius. It is mainly produced from two types of plants: sugar plants such as sugarcane and starch. such as cassava, rice, corn, etc.
Ethanol burns and heats to a lower temperature than gasoline. It is more corrosive to rubber and metals or copper than gasoline. Burning ethanol produces carbon dioxide, water, and heat energy.
C2H5OH + 3 O2→ 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + energy
Ethanol can be used to replace oil immediately. but I need to modify different parts of the engine Because ethanol can dissolve various rubber in the engine. In some countries, 100% ethanol has been used as a substitute for oil, such as Brazil, because Brazil has a lot of sugar cane. (Even if it grows only 1% of the area) Thailand also has raw material potential that facilitates ethanol production. By agricultural crops such as sugarcane and cassava, there are also other crops that can be used to produce ethanol such as corn, sorghum, and seaweed. There are also efforts to develop technology to produce ethanol from raw materials with high cellulose content. such as rice straw, sawdust, grass, etc. In Thailand in 2015, there were approximately 24 ethanol production plant operators and is likely to increase in the future.
converting biomass to ethanol (By oxygen fermentation)
Converting biomass into ethanol is a basic knowledge that humans have known for a long time. in the name of white wine or bootleg wine That gives a simple fermentation process. Ethanol is a type of alcohol that is produced by fermenting plants and there will be microorganisms that convert starch into sugar. And the next step will have microorganisms to convert sugar into alcohol per one. Choosing the right type of microorganisms Equal to the raw materials used to ferment will increase the efficiency of fermentation. Usually increase the efficiency of fermentation by using enzymes or some acids to help decompose.
Ethanol is mainly produced from two types of plants: sugar plants and sugar plants. and starchy plants If the starting substance is starch Fermentation (using oxygen) turns starches into sugars. then change from sugar to alcohol Ethanol with a concentration of about 8 – 12 percent by volume. Fermented water obtained from the fermentation process. will be separated from the ethanol using the fractional distillation process
- Turn biomass into fuel gas
Converting biomass to fuel gas can be done in 2 ways:
1.1 Biomass gasification by fermentation
1.2 Replace biomass with locations solid to combustible gas
3.1 Turning biomass into gas by fermentation (fermentation)
fermentation process It is the process of converting biomass fuels that have status solid or liquid to gaseous fuel This gas is known as “biogas”.
Biomass is fermented in anaerobic conditions, biomass will be decomposed and decomposed by bacteria, producing combustible biogas, most of which is methane. and carbon dioxide
Composition of biogas
– Methane about 50 – 70%
– Carbon dioxide about 30 – 40%
– The rest are other gasses such as hydrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen gas and water vapor.
Methane gas is a flammable gas. and is a major component of biogas Therefore, biogas can be considered as a combustible gas.
Biogas can occur in waste pits, manure heaps, i.e. whenever there is a long accumulation of organic matter, biogas will occur. naturally occurring biogas This is generally undesirable.
Nowadays, various fuels are expensive. Quite a few factories have a lot of organic waste, such as pineapple peels. Waste water from starch factories, animal mousse, etc. These wastes are now no longer considered waste. Because these things when fermented, biogas is combustible. And can be used as fuel in the establishment or factory, or if biogas is used to improve quality and increase pressure, it can also be used as a fuel in cars, replacing NGV as well.
Biogas production is a natural process. that rely on the action of microorganisms that do not like oxygen There are 2 types of anaerobic microorganisms: those that produce methane and those that don’t produce methane. Methane-producing microorganisms decompose simple organic matter into food. and produces methane gas carbon dioxide There are a few other types of gas such as hydrogen gas, rotten egg gas or hydrogen gas and nitrogen gas. Therefore, in the production of biogas, the container must be completely closed to prevent air from entering.